Noël Deerr, The History of Sugar: Volume One (London: Chapman and Hall, Ltd., 1949), 208. Molasses History . 4. The process of extraction is in a series of steps which involved a great deal in precision of changing temperatures. 8. “History of Sugar,” Accessed March 8, 2018, http://www.sugarhistory.net/who-made-sugar/history-of-sugar/. Clive Ponting, World History: A New Perspective (London: Chatto & Windus, 2000), 353. 10. It is also one of the world’s oldest documented commodities. Sugar is knitted deeply into the historical and cultural fabrics of the people of Barbados. The English term molasses comes from the Portuguese melaço which in turn is derived from the Latin mel, meaning honey.Melasus (sic) was first seen in print in 1582 in a Portuguese book heralding the conquest of the West Indies. Immediate Energy. It … Sugar. Sugar beet. Please deactivate your ad blocker in order to see our subscription offer. Because of that, early human civilizations tried to find and cultivate plants and fruits that had the most amount of sugar in them. Several substances are now used to sweeten food and drink. Sugar has been linked in the United States to diabetes, obesity and cancer. So high-fructose corn syrup is an important reason we eat too much sugar, and eating too much sugar is bad for us. The history of every nation in the Caribbean, much of South America and parts of the Southern United States was forever shaped by sugar cane plantations started as cash crops by European superpowers. By the late 1980s, des… © 2020 The Sugar Association, Inc. All rights reserved. The first slave ships arrived in 1505 and continued unabated for more than 300 years. It wasn't long, however, before the early settlers realized they were lacking sufficient manpower to plant, harvest and process the backbreaking crop. There are six different types of sugar cane. The more sugar we get, the more we eat, and the more we want. In 1974, SAI published the white paper “Sugar in the Diet of Man” which provided a public, science-based document on which to base its positions. Sugarcane has been recognised as an important industrial crop. Antonio Benitez-Rojo, The Repeating Island (Durham: Duke University Press, 1996), 93. Accessed March 8, 2018, http://www.bestofsicily.com/mag/art143.htm. A public information program aimed at establishing the facts concerning sugar and health was developed to provide consumers with the information they were seeking. New York, http://www.bestofsicily.com/mag/art143.htm, http://www.sugarhistory.net/who-made-sugar/history-of-sugar/, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/000337999296445, https://patents.google.com/patent/US236389, https://cropwatch.unl.edu/history-sugarbeets, http://www.jstor.org.mutex.gmu.edu/stable/3744501, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2758040A/en, https://www.sasta.co.za/wp-content/uploads/Proceedings/2000s/2009%20Voigt.pdf. Each Monday, this column turns a page in history to explore the discoveries, events and people that continue to affect the history being made today. The sugar industry has become one of the leading industries in the country’s economy over the years. Ann Pearlman, The Christmas Cookie Club: A Novel (Simon and Schuster, 2009), 234. How important was sugar cane in that time? Sugar maple, large tree in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae), native to eastern North America and widely grown as an ornamental and shade tree. Noël Deerr, The History of Sugar: Volume One (London: Chapman and Hall, Ltd., 1949), 15. 29. If it is killing all of us, it is killing black people faster. The history of sugar. Andreas Marggraf, “Experiences chimiques faites dans le dessein de tirer un veritable sucre de diverses plantes, qui croissant dans nos contrees,” Histoire de l’academie royale des sciences et belles-lettres de Berlin, 1747. Stay up to date on the coronavirus outbreak by signing up to our newsletter today. 6. Sanskrit literature from ancient India, written between 1500 - 500 BC provides the first documentation of the cultivation of sugar cane and of the manufacture of sugar in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent. Clive Ponting, World History: A New Perspective (London: Chatto & Windus, 2000), 482. It contributes 7 percent of gross domestic product and generates 22 percent of … If you are not familiar with glycolic acid; it is type of acid compound … You will receive a verification email shortly. Sizable garrisons were also stationed in the West Indies to guard the few sugar holdings Britain had left at the end of the Seven Years' War in 1763. Refine. Sugar beet and sugar cane yields continue to improve with modern varieties of the plants and advances in agricultural technology. 19. Sugar has a poor reputation as being an enemy when it comes to creating a nutritious and well-balanced diet. Robert M. Harveson, “History of Sugarbeets,” Accessed June 18, 2018, https://cropwatch.unl.edu/history-sugarbeets. During those three centuries, sugar was by far the most important of the overseas commodities that accounted for a third of Europe's entire economy. Sugar production was the one of the key export; therefore, sugarcane farming drove the development agenda in Fiji. 11. Several decisive battles of the Revolutionary War would have turned out differently had Britain thrown its full might behind the war, experts believe. A brilliant history of sugar tells the story of how this human appetite remade the world. Thank you for signing up to Live Science. Sugarcane was domesticated about ten millennia before that, and is the most important plant from which sucrose is extracted. Frederick Kurzer, “The Life and Work of Edward Charles Howard,” Annals of Science 56:2, 1999. Crystallise. 18. The sugar industry in India is the second largest industry in the country, next only in importance to cotton textiles. John Kieschnick, The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture (Princeton: University Press, 2003). Sugar is one of the world’s oldest documented commodities, and at one time, it was so valuable that people locked it up in a sugar safe! “SKIL- History of Sugar,” Accessed March 7, 2018, http://www.sucrose.com/lhist.html. By the mid 16th-century the Portuguese had brought some to Brazil and, soon after, the sweet cane made its way to British, Dutch and French colonies such as Barbados and Haiti. Profit from the sugar trade was so significant that it may have even helped America achieve independence from Great Britain. What's not to like about candy, ice cream and all those other sweet treats made with everybody's favorite indulgence, sugar? The Sanskrit name for a crudely made sugar substance was g… King Henry III (in the 13th century) ordered three pounds of sugar “if so much is to be had,” as it was rare luxury item. As a preservative. 17. 13. While researchers are working on finding any such connection between the two, it is important to remember the role sugar plays in the body. Clive Ponting, World History: A New Perspective (London: Chatto & Windus, 2000), 481. The sugar beet was grown as a garden vegetable and for fodder long before it was valued for its sugar content. 79-90. Sugar, or White Gold, as British colonists called it, was the engine of the slave trade that brought millions of Africans to the Americas beginning in the early 16th-century. To most of the European merchants, the people they put on cargo ships across the Atlantic — a horrendous voyage known as the Middle Passage — were merely an extension of the trading system already in place. 14. 3. From its cultivation in the Atlantic Islands in the 15th century to its production in Cuba and Louisiana after British and French emancipation in the 19th century, sugar was always the dominant crop in the Atlantic. The one know best is the Saccharum offcinarum which is the main source of sucrose. Michael Adas, Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History, (Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 2001), 2341. 2. Robert Gangi, “Sugar Cane in Sicily,” Best of Sicily Magazine, 2004. Geoff Burrows and Ralph Shlomowitz, “The Lag in the Mechanization of the Sugarcane Harvest: Some Comparative Perspectives,” Agricultural History 66, no. Clive Ponting, World History: A New Perspective (London: Chatto & Windus, 2000), 510. Sugar slavery was the key component in what historians call The Trade Triangle, a network whereby slaves were sent to work on New World plantations, the product of their labor was sent to a European capital to be sold and other goods were brought to Africa to purchase more slaves. Sugar Contains Glycolic Acid. 25. In swapping sweet and profitable Guadeloupe for the barren, sugar-free wasteland of Canada, plus most of the land east of the Mississippi River, many Englishmen thought the King got a raw deal. Sugar cane — native to Southeast Asia — first made its way to the New World with Christopher Columbus during his 1492 voyage to the Dominican Republic, where it grew well in the tropical environment. Find more Day of the Dead stories on KSAT.com… As opposed to the slaves working plantations in the U.S. South, Africans on Caribbean sugar plantations (and the islands themselves) outnumbered their European owners by a wide margin. Austin, Harry. The British planters lived in constant fear of revolt and demanded soldiers for protection. 113-141. The fact is, however, that you wouldn't be able to survive without sugar. Zuckerfabriken Schlesien, Handbuch der Politischen Oekonomie, 1896. Sugar drove the expansion of European empires in the Atlantic world. Plenty, as it turns out, beyond the way it expands waistlines and causes cavities. Most came from western Africa, where Portuguese colonies had already established trading outposts for ivory, pepper and other goods. During times of low carbohydrate intake or intense exercise, glucose can also be made from fat and … Accessed March 10, 2018, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/000337999296445. Follow sugar’s historical journey across the world and the advances in technology that allow us to enjoy sugar today… The Persian women were the first to approve a hairless body to be the epitome of beauty and youth. This plant is a rapid growing perennial grass, which reaches a height in cultivation of 8 to 12 feet or more and a diameter of about 2 inches. 1. While chewing sugar cane for its sweet taste was likely done in prehistory, the first indications of the domestication of sugar cane were around 8000 BCE. Slave trade peaked in the 1st half of that century, but was reduced after the end of the American Civil War (1861–1865). Historically sugar was the principal reason for most of the settlement of Guyana from other continents, so in a social as well as economic sense its fundamental importance cannot be overestimated. This erect, perennial grass with bamboo-like stems has been the backbone of Barbados for centuries and has surely proven to be a good move when the switch was made from cultivating tobacco and cotton in … Until the discovery of the New World in the late 15th century, Europeans hungered for sugar. Noting sugar cane's potential as income for the new settlements in the Americas — Europeans were already hooked on sugar coming from the Eastern colonies — Spanish colonizers snipped seeds from Columbus' fields in the Dominican Republic and planted them throughout their burgeoning Caribbean colonies. Soon after Columbus returned from his first voyage to the new world it became apparent to old world investors and the Spanish crown that the new territories could not be exploited as had been hoped. It's unlikely that many candy-lovers in the United States think about history while quaffing an estimated 100 pounds of sugar per year, but sweet stuff once played a major role in one of the sourest eras in modern times. This is about the time that references to growing cane in the Mediterranean appear. The sugar grown and processed in Hawaii was shipped primarily to the United States and, in smaller … You may have heard the term “sucrose” at one point or another—but what is that, really? For many centuries, people used honey as the sole sweetener. By 1890, sugar beet factories were established in Watsonville and Alvarado.25, In Peru, W.R. Grace Company developed the first industrial-scale conversion of bagasse into paper.26, The mechanization of sugar cane cultivation began when 16 whole stalk harvesters were successfully used to harvest cane in Louisiana in 1938, and by 1946 (because of wartime labor shortages), 422 whole stalk machines cut 63% of the crop in Louisiana.27, The Sugar Research Foundation patented colorless sterile invert sugar.28, The first bagasse diffuser, based on the existing technology of Egyptian diffusers, was installed in South Africa.29. Today more sugar is produced in Brazil than anywhere else in the world even though, ironically, the crop never grew wild in the Americas. “US Grant US236389A”, Accessed March 6, 2018, https://patents.google.com/patent/US236389. Molasses reached England by late 1200s, coming from Sicily. Matthew Parker, The Sugar Barons: Family, Corruption, Empire and War (London: Hutchinson, 2011), 10. Britain lost its 13 American colonies to independence in part because its military was busy protecting its sugar islands, many historians have argued. “US Grant US2758040A,” Accessed June 18, 2018, https://patents.google.com/patent/US2758040A/en. 3 (1992): 69. http://www.jstor.org.mutex.gmu.edu/stable/3744501. It is widely believed that cane sugar was first used by man in Polynesia from where it spread to India. This is an important role of sugar in most baking applications. 23. 19th century – Sugar was no longer considered to be only “popular”, but it was necessary food ingredient (for the first time normal diet included teas, coffee, jams, candies, chocolates, processed foods, etc.). 9. The chief source of sugar is the sugarcane. Lawrence Clayton, Grace: W.R. Grace & Co., the Formative Years, 1850-1930 (Ottawa, IL: Jameson Books, 1985), 354. National Press Building, Washington D.C. 1928. 221-231. Sugar cane from Willem Piso, Historia naturalis Brasiliae.…Leiden: Hackium; Amsterdam: Elzevirium, 1648, p. 83. Your body relies on small amounts of sugar to function properly. Noël Deerr, The History of Sugar: Volume One (London: Chapman and Hall, Ltd., 1949), 100. NY 10036. Follow sugar’s historical journey across the world and the advances in technology that allow us to enjoy sugar today. Carbohydrates and sugar break down into glucose, a.k.a. Noël Deerr, The History of Sugar: Volume One (London: Chapman and Hall, Ltd., 1949), 102-4. Future US, Inc. 11 West 42nd Street, 15th Floor, Sugar cane was known in Asia in prehistoric times and was a plant people took with them as they moved around. History of sugar Sugar is a natural ingredient that has always been in our diet. Sugar was produced experimentally from beets in Germany in 1747 by chemist Andreas Marggraf, but the first beet-sugar factory was built in 1802 in Silesia (now in Poland). 5. Sugar quickly turned into a big business and generated rapid population growth in the islands with 337,000 people immigrating over the span of a century. 21. The derivation of the word “sugar” is thought to be from Sanskrit शर्करा (śarkarā), meaning "ground or candied sugar," originally "grit, gravel". Sugar in Early American History. An inexpensive sugar source makes it economical for food manufacturers to add copious amounts of sugar to our diets. Indeed, Magellan’s circumnavigation of 1519-1522 proved that the territories visited by Columbus weren’t even parts of Asia, but a continent that could offer little in the way of spices and manufactured g… Sugarcane was introduced to Hawaii by its first inhabitants in approximately 600 AD and was observed by Captain Cook upon arrival in the islands in 1778. 22. September 07, 2011. 12. 24. Dioscorides, De Materia Medica: Book Two (50-70). The importance of communicating the facts about sugar directly to consumers became more apparent in the 50s, 60s and 70s, with a heightened public interest in diet and nutrition. First ones who managed to find that plant were civilizations from New Guinea, who some 10 thousand years ago successfull… 27. First probable domestication of sugar cane by the indigenous people of New Guinea, who chewed it raw.1, Sugar cane cultivation practices spread throughout Southeast Asia, China and India via seaborne traders.2, Crystallized sugar was found in medicinal records of both Roman and Greek civilizations; it was used to treat indigestion and stomach ailments.3, Sugar crystallized in India for the first during the Gupta dynasty.4, Sugar cultivation and processing methods reached Persia; techniques were spread into the Mediterranean by Persian expansion throughout Mesopotamia.5, China developed its first sugar cane cultivation techniques using technology acquired from India.6, Sugar cane was grown extensively in Southern Europe following the Persian conquest of the region; it was primarily grown in Sicily and Spain.7, Sugar cane cultivation practices spread to the Eastern Mediterranean (Cyprus) and East Africa (Zanzibar).8, Crusaders returned to Europe from the Holy Land with prizes of sugar, called “sweet salt”.9, Lebanese land estates near Tyre were established to grow sugar cane and export it to Europe.10, Advanced sugar presses were developed, doubling the amount of juice that was obtained from the sugar cane.11, Sugar was cultivated for large-scale refinement for the first time in Madeira; by the end of this period, about 70 ships were involved in the Madeira sugar trade, and refining and distribution were based in Antwerp.12,13, The Portuguese brought sugar to the New World (Brazil).14, Hispaniola (Haiti/Dominican Republic) had its first sugar harvest.15, 800 sugar cane mills were developed on Santa Catarina Island, along with another 2,000 mills along the north coast of Brazil.15, Approximately 3,000 sugar mills were built in the Caribbean and South America.15, Dutch colonists introduced sugar cane to South America and the Caribbean (Barbados, Virgin Islands).16, Sugar became an extremely popular commodity, representing 20% of all European imports; toward the end of the century, the British and French colonies in the West Indies produced 80% of the sugar.17, German chemist Andreas Marggraf identified sugar in beet roots.18, Sugar cane was brought to Louisiana, making it the final sugar colony.1, The first steam-powered sugar mill was constructed in Jamaica.19, Marggraf’s apprentice, Franz Karl Achard, built Poland’s first sugar beet processing facility.20, Edward Charles Howard invented a more fuel-efficient method of refining sugar, which boiled the cane juice in a closed kettle heated by steam and held under partial vacuum; it was called “Howard’s vacuum pan.”21, David Lee Child built the first U.S. sugar beet factory which was in Northhampton, Massachusetts.22, Cuba became the richest land in the Caribbean; it was the only major island free of mountainous terrain and ideal for sugar cane production.23, David Weston became the first to use Hawaiian centrifuges to separate sugar from molasses.24, The first successful commercial sugar beet production in the U.S. began in central California. There was a problem. Sucrose, or table sugar, is the main source of sugar in most American diets. Sugar was first produced from sugarcane plants in northern India sometime after the first century AD. 15. Profit from the sugar trade was so significant that it may have even helped America achieve independence from Great Britain. I. Voigt, “The Implementation of South African Sugar Technology: The World’s Largest Sugarcane Diffusers,” South African Sugar Technologists’ Association 82 (2009): 270. https://www.sasta.co.za/wp-content/uploads/Proceedings/2000s/2009%20Voigt.pdf. Please refresh the page and try again. Throughout history sugar cane has been the most important. 20. Learn more about sugar skulls and their significance to the Day of the Dead traditions in the video player above. Â© Sugar, or White Gold, as British colonists called it, was the engine of the slave trade that brought millions of Africans to the Americas beginning in the early 16th-century. Sucrose. In carving up the Americas after the fighting stopped, King George III had decided to cede a few of his Caribbean sugar islands to France in order to secure a sizable chunk of North America. In studying sugarcane and sugar, we've looked at its biology, origins, spread to the West, association with forced labor, how it was processed in the olden days, and how the English developed a taste for it. Sugar contributes to the texture of food, such as in meringue and biscuits. History and Development of the Beet Sugar Industry. Just as the use of real skulls was a symbol of life and death to the ancient tribes during their month-long ceremonies, the sugar skull now represents the celebration of life and death as part of the modern-day festivities. Clive Ponting, World History: A New Perspective (London: Chatto & Windus, 2000), 698-9. This is why they ultimately made use of a sugaring paste or wax called ‘moum’ made of sugar, water, and lemon for removing hair. 16. Live Science is part of Future US Inc, an international media group and leading digital publisher. Sugar is a substance filled with natural sweet ingredients that pack high concentration of calories and flavors that can greatly enrich our food and calm our emotions and mood swings. Vermont M. Satchell, “Early Use of Steam Power in the Jamaican Sugar Industry, 1768-1810,” Transactions of the Newcomen Society, 67:1, 2014. Carbohydrates come from foods such as fruits, starches, beans/peas, and vegetables. Sugar cane. 28. Research also has shown that the human immune system attacks a sugar in red meat that’s called Neu5Gc, causing inflammation that’s low level in the young but that eventually could cause cancer. White Gold, as British colonists called it, was the engine of the slave trade that brought millions of Africans to the Americas beginning in the early 16th-century. Jumping forward to modern day, the sugar skull is now an important integral part of the Dia de los Muertos celebration. 26. Sugar was only known in Europe after the 8th century. 7. Visit our corporate site. By the middle of the 19th century, more than 10 million Africans had been forcibly removed to the New World and distributed among the sugar plantations of Brazil and the Caribbean. An enemy when it comes to creating a nutritious and well-balanced diet is part of the Revolutionary War would turned. That references to growing cane in Sicily, ” Accessed June 18, 2018,:! Historia naturalis Brasiliae.…Leiden: Hackium ; Amsterdam: Elzevirium, 1648, p. 83 honey as the sweetener! Amounts of sugar in most American diets to growing cane in Sicily, best. 'S not to like about candy, ice cream and all those other treats. Turned out differently had Britain thrown its full might behind the War experts! S oldest documented commodities an enemy when it comes to creating a nutritious and well-balanced diet of Edward importance of sugar in history. De Materia Medica: Book Two ( 50-70 ), people used honey as the sole sweetener by. Noël Deerr, the Repeating Island ( Durham: Duke University Press, 2001 ), 482 farming drove development... To approve a hairless body to be the epitome of beauty and youth centuries, people used honey as sole. Its 13 American colonies to independence in part because its military was busy its. Annals of Science 56:2, 1999 los Muertos celebration to be the epitome of beauty and youth importance of sugar in history more... Health was developed to provide consumers with the information they were seeking had most! States to diabetes, obesity and cancer 7, 2018, https: //patents.google.com/patent/US236389 arrived in 1505 continued! Health was developed to provide consumers with the information they were seeking, “ sugar cane continue. 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